Cancer is the second most
common cause of death after heart disease in most western countries. In some
countries, it is the leading cause of death. Although about 1 in 3 people
develops cancer at some stage in life, many people can be cured because of
advances in diagnosis and treatment.
Many types of cancer produce a solid tumour that forms in an organ, such as
the breast, intestine, or bladder. If not detected and treated, these
cancers may spread to other body tissues. Other cancers are often widespread
from early on, such as cancer of the lymph nodes and cancer of blood-forming
cells in the bone marrow.
What are the causes?
What are the symptoms?
How is it diagnosed?
What are the treatments?
What is the prognosis?
What are the causes?
Cancer occurs when cells divide and grow in an uncontrolled manner. Cell
division and cell functioning are controlled by genes, and defects in some
of these genes can lead to a cell becoming cancerous. In both children and
adults, these defects (mutations) in the genes may be caused by
environmental factors such as chemicals (especially from smoking), viruses,
ultraviolet light, or other types of radiation. In some cases, an abnormal
gene is inherited from a parent. The main causes of cancer vary in different
Children and adults with reduced immunity, such as those with AIDS or people
who are taking immunosuppressants, have an increased risk of developing
certain types of cancer. In such people, agents such as viruses are more
likely to cause cancer.
Cancer in children Cancers in children are rare, affecting about 1 in 600
children in the UK, but they are still a major cause of death in infancy.
The most common childhood cancers are leukaemia and tumours of the brain and
The cause of most types of cancer in children is not known. Some cancers,
such as a neuroblastoma, occur primarily in children. A neuroblastoma
develops in an adrenal gland or the nervous system from tissue that normally
disappears during fetal development. Cancers of this type are most common
during infancy. Other types of childhood cancer, such as primary bone
cancer, affect older children.
How to Prevent Skin Cancer
- Skin Cancer can be
prevented by taking some concrete measures.
- discomfort radiating to
the back, jaw, throat or arm
- a fullness, indigestion
or choking feeling (may feel like heartburn)
- sweating, nausea,
vomiting or dizziness
- extreme weakness,
anxiety or shortness of breath
- rapid or irregular