Nathia Gali
  Ghora Gali


  Pir Sohawa




  Malam Jabba




  Fort Munro
  Naulakha Pavilion
  Khyber Pass


Punjab Province- Pakistan

Lahore Fort in Punjab Punjab, its name meaning 'Land of Five Rivers' (The name Punjab is derived from the words punj meaning five, and aab meaning waters), is the richest, most fertile and most heavily populated province of Pakistan.The Punjab plain comprises mainly the province of Punjab. It is the gift of River Indus and its five eastern tributaries- Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas. The plain spreads from the south of Potohar plateau up to Mithankot, where Sulaiman Range approaches river Indus. The Punjab plain is almost a featureless plain with a gentle slope southward averaging one foot to the mile. The only break in the alluvial monotony is the little group of broken hills(100 ft-1,600ft.) near Sangla and Irana on either side of the Chenab. The entire plain is extensively irrigated by a network of canals. This system has been greatly expanded and improved in recent years by the construction of link-canals, dams and barrages as a result of the Indus Water Treaty with India, which awarded the three western rivers (Indus, Jhelum and Chenab) to pakistan, and the three eastern rivers (Ravi,Sutlej and Beas) to India. Tarbela Dam on river Indus and Mangla Dam on River Jhelum, which have water storage capacities of 11.1 million acre ft. and 5.55 million acre ft. respectively, need a special mention. Irrigation water is supplemented by summer and winter rains(15-20 inches) so that a variety of crops is raised, the major onces being wheat, rice, cotton and sugarcane. The region has earned the name of granary of Pakistan. However, the blessings of canal irrigation have not been without a curse, which render about 100,000 acres of land unproductive every year through waterlogging and salinity. The menace has been greatly controlled through salinity control and reclamation projects. Agricultural development boosted urbanization and industrialization so that the region has emerged as the most important economically developed area of Pakistan, containing over 56 per cent of the population and most of the commercial and industrial centres of the country, such as Lahore (2,922,000), Faisalabad (1,092.000). Multan (730,000), Gujranwala (596,000), Sialkot (297,000) and Gujrat (154,000). The south eastern section of the region known as cholistan is under-developed. This tract is parched and thirsty. The summer temperature average 51.7 oC and the area remains under the grip of extremely hot winds. The surface .

Kaghan Valley is a 155 kms long scenic wonderland. Lofty peaks crown the mountains ranges on either side like turrets, ranging in height from 12,000 to 17,000 ft and more, with the eastern range higher than the western. The bed of valley slopes up from 3,000 ft at Balakot, which, as it were, the gateway of the valley, to 12,000 ft at Gittdas beyond which the valley crosses at Babusar Pass 14,000 ft. The first ten miles or so are largely barren, but when the valley raises to about 5,000 ft forests of pine and fir appear, densely overgrown with a variety of plants, which has won for Kaghan the epithets of 'the botanists paradise'. The forests continue till about Naran 8,000 ft.


 Lahore badshahi masjid

Road goes along the river Kunhar, meandering now to one side and now to the other. But keeping most to the bed of the valley and never too far above the bank of the stream except in the very first state.

The Kaghan Valley is accessible by road from Abbottabad. From Abbottabad, 72 km drive to Balakot, the gateway to Kaghan valley. Here you have to switch over to jeeps for your drive 100 km to Kaghan Valley.





Important cities in Punjab


Lahore Faisalabad
Rawalpindi Multan
Sargodha Sialkot
Bahawalpur Gujranwala
Jhung Kasur
Sahiwal Okara
Rahim yar khan Gujrat
 Complete list of Punjab Cities with population-Full List


Places of Interest:

The south eastern section of the region known as cholistan is under-developed. This tract is parched and thirsty. The summer temperature average 51.7 oC and the area remains under the grip of extremely hot winds. The surface of this desert consists of a succession of sand dunes rising in places to a height of 500 ft. with vegetation peculiar to sandy tracts. There is no soil down to the lowest depth except sand; bitter water is, however, sometimes found at depth of about 80-100 ft.

The Potohar Upland

mango fruitcommonly called the Potohar Plateau, lies to the south of northern mountains and is flanked in the west by River Indus and in the east by River Jhelum. This 1,000-2,000 ft.(305-610 m) upland is a typical arid landscape with denuded and broken terrain characterised by undulations and irregularities. These are a few outlying spurs of Salt Range in the south, and those of Khair Murad and Kala Chitta Range in the north. Two seasonal streams-Rivers Haro and River Soan-flow from east to the west and after crossing the region in the north and in the middle respectively, fall in the Indus. River Kanshi traverses the eastern part of the plateau from north to south and drains into River Jhelum. These rivers and other hill torrents have cut deep valleys and are of little use for irrigation. Agriculture is thus almost entirely dependent on rainfall of 15-20 inches and on the small dams built in the catchment areas of the streams.

Fields of wheat, barley, jowar, bajra and pulses are found in valley bottoms and on the terraced slopes along river banks. A new economic factor has been introduced by the establishment of a few factories in Rawalpindi and Islamabad and a large industrial area in the Taxila-Wah-Hassanabdal triangle,where a large cement factory was already in existence. The region is particulary known for its oilfields in Khaur-Dhulian neighbourhood, the ancient civilization sites in Soan valley, the ruins and the Buddhist University at Taxila and the new capital, Islamabad, which stands north of the old city of Rawalpindi(806,000) at the southern slops of Murree hills, the popular Holiday resort of the country. Salt Range The ramparts of the Salt Range stretching from east to west in the south separate potohar upland from the Punjab plain. The average height of the Salt Range is about 700 metres, but near Sakesar in Sargodha district, it rises to 1,500 metres, making summer pleasant. The southern face is remarkably steep, dissected and intensely arid. But, the northern slope is gentle and has sparse vegetation of oleanders and wild olives. The top of the range is a narrow belt of isolated plateaus and basins, where, sparse stunted trees and fields of wheat and maize are found. However, the real importance of the salt mines lies in the large deposits of pure salt at Khewra and Kalabagh and the large seams of coal at Dandot and Makerwal.

Hiran Minar PunjabPunjab has a long and tremendous historical resume.  The oldest settlements are found in Taxila which is about thirty kilometers north-west of Rawalpindi out along the Grand Trunk Road.  Other historical sites in the province are Sher Shah Suri's settlements such as Rohtas Fort and Grand Trunk Road, Mughal settlements such as the famous Lahore Fort, Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens and Jehangir's Tomb to name a few and Hindu settlements near the Salt Range such as Ketas ruins which is associated with Mahabharata and temples at Malot and at Shiv Ganga.

sialkotThe province has also generated some famous romantic tales. Mughal emperors were the first ones to engage in romance.  After them followed two of the greatest pairs; Sohni and Mahival, and Hir and Ranjha. Their love stories remain the part of province history.

When Pakistan became independant in 1947, a part of the eastern Punjab went to India but the major portion of the state was awarded to Pakistan.

 Today, agriculture is the most important industry in Punjab.  Wheat, rice, sugar, fruit, tobacco, cotton and many other crops flourish.  But visitors may be surprised to see how much industrial development there is.  The factories of Punjab produce anything and everything; from food processing and textiles, to furnaces, foundaries and chemical plants.

Cotton Crop of Punjab Pakistan

The province of Punjab is criss-crossed by canals.  Surrounded by desert, most of the Punjab is now a huge oasis of green where there are hundreds of new settlements - canal colonies - with practically no historical reference.  These Cotton of Punjabcanal colonies, established by the British, are probably one of the most astonishing projects carried out ever.  These canals were previously built on small scale, to provide water to gardens and enjoyment.  The first major colonization experiment was undertaken in 1886-88 when an effort was made to irrigate 76 thousand hectares of wasteland in Multan district using water from the Sutlej river. Later, many large scale irrigation projects were undertaken, perfecting the skills of canal engineering.  Nowadays, the map of the Punjab has been totally altered by the changes brought by irrigation.









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